What are the electronic components and their functions

hqew / 2018-06-12 / News

Reading guidance

Electronic components are the general name of components and devices. It is an integral part of electronic components and small machines and instruments. It is usually made up of several parts and can be used in similar products. Often refers to electrical, radio, instrumentation and other parts of the industry, such as capacitors, transistors, hair springs, clockwork and other sub devices. Electronic components consist of two components: electronic devices and electronic components. Electronic devices refer to finished products that do not change their molecular composition when they are produced in factories. Such as resistors, capacitors, inductors. Because it does not generate electrons itself, it does not control and transform the voltage and current, so it is also called passive devices.

What is electronic components and their composition

Electronic components are the general name of components and devices. It is an integral part of electronic components and small machines and instruments. It is usually made up of several parts and can be used in similar products. Often refers to electrical, radio, instrumentation and other parts of the industry, such as capacitors, transistors, hair springs, clockwork and other sub devices.Electronic components consist of two parts: electronic devices(passive devices) and electronic components.

Basic electronic components

  1. Electronic device(Passive devices)Refers to the finished product that does not change the molecular composition in production. Such as resistors, capacitors, inductors. Because it does not generate electrons itself, it does not control and transform the voltage and current, so it is also called passive devices.

  2. Electronic component. A product that changes the molecular structure of a plant when it is produced. For example, transistors, electronic tubes, integrated circuits. It is also called active device because it can produce electrons, control voltage and current, transform (amplification, switch, rectify, demodulation, oscillation and modulation, etc.). According to the classification standard, electronic devices can be divided into 12 broad categories, which can be summarized as two parts of vacuum electronic devices and semiconductor devices.

Common electronic components and their function

The common electronic components are: resistors, capacitors,inductors, potentiometers, transformers, diodes, transistors, MOS tubes, integrated circuits and so on. Now let’s shows them clearly.

Basic electronic componentsDenifition
Resistor a passive electrical component to create resistance in the flow of electric current. 


 a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
Inductor also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
Potentiometers is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding or rotating contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider
Transformers a static electromagnetic device, which transforms electrical energy from one circuit to another circuit without a change in frequency. 
Diodes a specialized electronic component with two electrodes called the anode and the cathode. 
Transistors a device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals.
MOS tubes MOS tubes are the most basic functional components assembled as required in the invention.
Integrated Circuits a small semiconductor-based electronic device consisting of fabricated transistors, resistors and capacitors.

  • A. Resistor

Definition: The impediment of the conductor to the current is called the resistance of the conductor. A substance with a low resistance is called an electric conductor, or a conductor. A substance with large resistance is called an electrical insulator, or an insulator. In physics, the resistance (resistance) is used to indicate the magnitude of the impediment of the conductor to the current. The greater the resistance of a conductor, the greater the impediment of the conductor to the current. Different conductors have different resistances. Resistance is a property of the conductor itself.

Symbol: The resistance of a conductor is usually expressed in letter R. The unit of resistance is Ohm , or short for Europe, and the symbol is Omega. The larger units are 1000 euro (k omega) and mega (M Ohm) (trillion = million, or 1 million).


  • B. Capacitor

Definition:Capacitance (or electrical capacity) is the physical quantity that represents the capacity of a capacitor to hold charge. The power required to increase the potential difference between the two plates of the capacitor by 1 volts is called the capacitance of the capacitor. In physics, the capacitor is a static charge storage medium (like a bucket, you can charge the charge into it. In the absence of a discharge circuit, the self discharge effect / electrolytic capacitor is obvious in the absence of a discharge circuit, and the charge will be permanent, it is its characteristic) and its use is wide. It is an indispensable electronic component in the field of electronics and power. It is mainly used in power supply filtering, signal filtering, signal coupling, resonance, DC isolation and other circuits.


Symbol: The symbol for the capacitance is C

C= epsilon S/4 PI kd=Q/U

In the international unit system, the unit of capacitance is Fala, abbreviated as "law", and the symbol is F. The common unit of capacitance is mF, micromethod (F), nF and pF (skin method also called micromethod). The conversion relation is:

1 Fala (F) =1000 millimetre (mF) =1000000 micromethod (mu F)

1 micro method (F) =1000 nano method (nF) =1000000 skin method (pF)

  • C. Inductor

Definition: Inductor is a component that can store electrical energy into magnetic energy. The structure of the inductor is similar to that of a transformer, but there is only one winding. The inductor has a certain inductance, which only blocks the change of current. If the inductor is in the state of no current passing, it will try to stop the current flowing through the circuit when it is switched on. If the inductor is in a state of current passing, the circuit will attempt to maintain the same current when the circuit is disconnected. Inductors are also called chokes, reactors, and dynamic reactors.


  • D. Potentiometers

Definition: Potentiometer is a resistance element with three lead terminals and resistance values that can be adjusted according to some change law. Potentiometers are usually made up of resistive bodies and movable brushes. When the brush moves along the resistor body, the resistance value or voltage that is related to the displacement is obtained at the output end. Potentiometers can be used either as three terminal components or as two terminal elements. The latter can be considered as a variable resistor.


A potentiometer is an adjustable electronic component. It consists of a resistor body and a rotating or sliding system. When a voltage is added between the two fixed contacts of the resistance body, the position of the contact on the resistance body is changed by a rotating or sliding system, and a voltage which is related to the position of the movable contact can be obtained between the moving contact and the fixed contact. It is mostly used as voltage divider, when potentiometer is a four terminal element. The potentiometer is basically a slip rheostat. There are several styles, which are usually used in loudspeaker volume switch and laser head power adjustment.

  • E. Transformer

Definition:Transformer is the device to change the AC voltage by the principle of electromagnetic induction. The main components are primary coil, secondary coil and iron core.


Function: The main functions are: voltage conversion, current transformation, impedance conversion, isolation, voltage regulation (magnetic saturation transformer) and so on. Transformers are often used as lifting voltage, matching impedance, safety isolation, etc.

  • F. Diodes

Definition: Diode is a device with two electrodes, which only allows electronic components to flow through a single direction. Much of the use is to apply its rectifying function. The VaricapDiode is used as an electronic adjustable capacitor.

The current directivity of most diodes is usually referred to as the "RecTIfying" function. 


Function: The most common function of a diode is to allow the current to pass in a single direction (called a forward bias) and to block it when reversing (called reverse bias). Therefore, the diode can be thought of as an electronic check valve. In fact, however, the diode does not show such a perfect direction of opening and closing, but rather a more complex nonlinear electronic feature - which is determined by a specific type of diode technology.There are many other functions besides using switches.

  • G. Transistors

Definition: Triode, the whole name should be semiconductor triode, also known as bipolar transistor, transistor. A semiconductor device with current controlled current. Its function is to amplify the weak signal into a high value electrical signal and also to be used as a contactless switch.


Function: Crystal triode is one of the basic components of semiconductor. It has the function of current amplification, and is the core component of electronic circuit. The triode is made of two very close PN junctions on a semiconductor substrate. The two PN junctions divide the whole semiconductor into three parts, the middle part is the base area, and the two sides are the emission and the collector areas, and the arrangement has two kinds of PNP and NPN.

  • H. MOS Tube

Definition: The MOS tube is a metal (metal) - oxide (oxid) - Semiconductor (semiconductor) field effect transistor, or is called a metal insulator (insulator) - semiconductor. The source and drain of the MOS tube are adjustable. They are all N type regions formed in P type backgate. In most cases, the two zones are the same. Even if the two ends are switched, the performance of the device will not be affected. Such devices are considered to be symmetrical.

MOS Tube

Function: The most notable feature of the MOS tube is that it has good switching characteristics, so it is widely used in circuits requiring electronic switches, such as switching power and motor drive, and lighting.

  • I. Integrated Circuit

Definition: Integrated circuit (integratedcircuit) is a kind of micro electronic device or component. With a certain process, the transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors, and inductors needed in a circuit are interconnected and interconnected together, produced on a small or small block of semiconductor wafers or dielectric substrates, and then packaged in a tube shell to become a micro structure with the function of the required circuit. The structure has already formed a whole, which makes electronic components take a big step toward miniaturization, low power consumption, intelligence and high reliability. It is represented by the letter "IC" in the circuit.

Integrated circuit(ICs)

Function:  The integrated circuit has the advantages of small volume, light weight, less extraction line and welding point, long life, reliability, good performance and so on. At the same time, the cost is low, and it is easy to be produced in large scale. It is not only widely used in industrial and civil electronic equipment, such as radio recorder, television, computer and so on, but also widely used in military, communication, remote control and so on. Assembling electronic devices with integrated circuits can increase the assembly density by several times to thousands of times than transistors, and the stable working time of the devices can also be greatly improved.

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