What is Operational amplifier?
Operational amplifiers are the initial devices that were used in analog computer to perform many mathematical operations in many nonlinear and linear circuits.
Op-amp is short for Operational amplifier. its widely used in many electronic applications as oscillator, rectifier and comparators and are most common scientific devices these days.
Output voltage of this amplifier goes to ground and it also allows direct sensing ground.
Power drain incorporated in this amplifier is suitable for battery operation.
In the linear mode of operation, voltage ranges between ground and output voltage.
The unity gain cross frequency and input bias current of this amplifier is temperature compensated.
Op-amp is acted like a comparator in the absence of negative feedback.
If positive voltage is applied at the non-inverting terminal and inverting terminal is set to ground with the help of resister, then the output will turn out to be maximum positive and if negative voltage is applied on the non-inverting terminal the output voltage will be maximum negative.
Intro for integrated circuit LM324N
LM324N IC is a quad operational amplifier in 14 pin DIP package. It consists of four independent internally frequency compensated high gain operational amplifiers coming with differential input and single ended output, which are designed specifically to operate from single power supply over wide voltage range. It is designed in such a way, that the voltage difference between input terminals creates an output signal of much larger magnitude. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low-power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage, so long as difference between two supplies is 3V to 32V.
This device also can work on a split power supply, however supply current drain doesn’t depend on the strength of supply voltage.
The characteristic of this circuit, its band width, impedance, and input don’t effect manufacturing variations and temperature coefficient because this op-amp exhibits negative feedback.
Typical application includes transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op amp circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For example, the LM324-N can directly operate off of the standard 5-V power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and easily provides the required interface electronics without requiring the additional ±15 V power supplies.
Features of lm324 IC operational amplifier (op amp)
Internally frequency compensated for unity gain
Large DC voltage gain of 100dB
Wide power supply range from 3V to 32V and ±1.5 to ±16V
Input common mode voltage range includes ground
Large output voltage swing from 0V to VCC -1.5V
Operating temperature range from 0°C to 70°C
Input offset voltage of 1.5mV
Input bias current of 40nA
Input offset current of 3nA
Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 75dB
Pin-out for LM324n circuit op amp
It mainly consists of 14 pins. Function of each pin is shown in the figure below.
Lm324n operates on a single power supply and contains true differential inputs that operate in linear mode.
It can operate over a multiple range of power supply voltage which have little impact on performance characteristics.
At 25 ºC, Lm324n can operate over a minimum voltage supply of 2.3V.
Comparator Circuit schematic Using LM324N
The LM324N comparator circuit consists of sensor voltage, reference voltage, Vcc, ground and output pins.
The following circuit shows the Voltage comparator, the components required for this circuit is the LM324N comparator and the two resistors with a value of 10K ohms. The two inputs like input A and input B are from the output of the line sensor circuit and the two resistors are used to set the voltage reference to produce the best digital output. Node A & Node B are connected to the non-inverting input of left and right comparators. The output of the left comparator is connected to P1.0 of the Microcontroller and output of the right comparator is connected to P1.1 of the Microcontroller. Both the comparators are wired in non-inverting mode.
Lm324n can be used as a rectifier, oscillator and comparator.
it is widely used in transducer amplifiers.
DC gain blocks and conventional amplifiers circuits are mainly consists of Lm324n.
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