China's sensor industry is at an international mid-level, on the eve of domestic industry development, but there are not many core technologies with independent intellectual property rights, and industrial benefits are not obvious.
Recently, Honorary Director of Sensor Branch of China Instrument Industry Association Chang, Shenyang Institute of Instrument Science and Technology, former president and professor-level senior engineer Xu Kaixian accepted an interview with the "Communication Industry News" (network) reporter, summed up the current development status of China's sensor industry, the problems encountered and breakthroughs.
Although China has made certain breakthroughs in the field of sensors, but in the domestic market, international brands are still in a monopoly position in key industries, key technologies, and high value-added applications.
It is understood that almost all high-end sensor products are imported from abroad, and 90% of chips are imported from abroad. The technology and products of fiber optic sensors in high-end intelligent equipment field are compared with those of foreign countries. The gap is large. In the temperature sensor, NTC thermistor is seriously insufficient in domestic enterprises, and 90% of the market share is occupied by foreign capital. The temperature sensor with extremely high temperature, radiation resistance and high pressure resistance cannot be mass-produced. Br>
In this regard, Xu Kaixian believes that this is caused There are six main reasons for a situation.
First, the common key technologies in design, reliability, packaging technology, etc. have not really broken. First, in terms of design technology, sensor design techniques involve multiple Discipline, multiple theories, multiple materials, multiple processes and on-site conditions; design software is expensive, the design process is complex, and there are many considerations; design talents are scarce, designers need to understand not only the general design procedures and methods, but also the devices. The preparation process is to understand the conditions of the device on-site. Secondly, in terms of reliability technology, the reliability index of domestic sensors is usually 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that of similar foreign products. Finally, in terms of packaging technology, the domestic packaging technology for sensors has not yet formed a series. , standard, and no unified interface, is not conducive to user selection and product interchange.
Second, domestic sensor products are not matched or not in series. Xu Kaixian believes that some specifications that are easier to produce in the series can still be produced, but there are more repeated production phenomena, which is not conducive to market competition; the series of high-end products often cannot Production, more need to import abroad, such as industrial automation instrumentation, high precision, high stability low differential pressure sensor (range ≤ 1KPa), high differential pressure, high static pressure sensor (range ≥ 3MPa, static pressure ≥ 60MPa )
Third, the sensor process equipment is not valued. The sensor process innovation relies on the advent of new process equipment. In the research and development and production of sensor technology equipment, it is generally self-raised funds for research and development, but the capital and manpower are limited, which is not conducive to sensors. Innovation in process research.
fourth , lack of top-level design and overall planning. There are many types of sensors and a wide range of specialties. The industrial chain belongs to different departments and industries in China, but there is no systematic research and scientific planning for the top design of sensors. In addition, although the state has invested in the sensor industry, many companies are eager to achieve success, ignoring basic research, and not wanting speed.
fifth The resources are scattered and the industry scale is small. The industrial dispersion is mainly characterized by scattered funds, scattered technology, scattered enterprise layout, scattered industrial structure and market dispersion;The small scale of the industry is mainly reflected in the fact that there are more than 1,600 domestic sensor companies, but most of them are small and micro enterprises, and their profitability is not strong. There is no leading enterprise that leads the technology.
sixth The sensor is lacking in high-end talent. Talents are the foundation of innovation. The biggest bottleneck affecting the development of sensors is the lack of excellent R&D talents. Due to the weak economic foundation, technical foundation and industrial base of the sensor industry, coupled with the fact that the sensor industry involves many disciplines, it requires extensive knowledge and new technologies are emerging. It is difficult to attract top international talents to work in the sensor industry; in addition, due to the irrational set of disciplines in the country, the lack of a composite talent training mechanism, often do not understand the design, the unknown application of the process, the application of the design. Many companies lack a variety of talents who know how to bury, understand technology, and operate, as well as craft and skilled person.
In the face of these problems, Xu Kaixian believes that it should be from both policy and technology. Come find a breakthrough.
in policy At the level, we must first plan and top-level design. The state has clear goals and plans for basic research, product development, industrial layout, and market applications of sensors.
Second, It is necessary to increase investment and national projects. Compared with the investment in IC, the state's investment in sensors is relatively insufficient, the investment intensity and continuity need to be improved, and the country needs to increase the project of the sensor project.
Last, We must concentrate our strength and work together. For some key sensor projects, "card neck" products, the country should organize joint research, gather the advantages of China, and concentrate on doing big things.
in technology At the level, first strengthen the integration and integration of IC and MEMS technology. The integration and integration of IC and MEMS is the only way for the development of the sensor technology industry, especially high-end sensors and smart sensors. Cooperation and mutual benefit between IC companies (institutions) and MEMS companies,It is related to the success or failure of the sensor industry.
Second, Emphasis is placed on the research of non-silicon based new materials, new mechanisms, and new process sensors. Due to silicon-based sensors, foreign research time is long, technology is mature, product serialization, process equipment is complex and expensive, and the level of industrialization is high. It is extremely difficult to break through and surpass.
Last, Start with the chip and apply it to the application. Most of the domestic sensor industry is engaged in research and development and production of sensor applications, especially in the application of Internet of Things and smart equipment.There are not many developments and research involving sensor chips. This is because the chip research and development investment is huge, the cost is high, the process equipment is expensive, the capital recovery period is long, and the technical difficulty is high. However, if China does not increase investment in the sensor chip, the consequences may be "card neck" abroad, so it is necessary to increase investment in chips. "If the performance of the sensor chip is excellent, the reliability and stability of the product are improved, there is no market for its application." Xu Kaixian said.
Sensors and computers, communication technology is called the three pillars of information systems, China's sensor industry development since the 1950s, with sensors Upgrading and upgrading, the state identified the sensor technology as a national key research project in the “Seventh Five-Year Plan” in 1986. Since then, it has opened up the actual development stage of domestic research sensors and formed a complete sensor industry chain.
In recent years,With the craze of smart cities and the Internet of Things, sensor technology plays an important role in industrial restructuring and transformation and upgrading. It is of great strategic significance for occupying the commanding heights of strategic emerging industries. The Communications Industry News (网) The reporter specially interviewed Zhou Yonghong, the chief engineer of Fujian Shangrun Precision Instrument Co., Ltd., to listen to him about the development of sensors in China.
According to Zhou Yonghong Introduction, Fujian Shangrun Precision Instrument Co., Ltd. was founded in 1991 and has been in development for more than 20 years. In the past 20 years, Shangrun Instruments has delivered a batch of high quality products for various industries, including intelligent pressure sensors, electromagnetic flowmeters, temperature sensors, etc. The products have successfully obtained the qualifications of China Petroleum and Sinopec, and the high-precision silicon pressure sensor technology research and industrial development project has been approved by the National 863 Program.
Sensor Technology After decades of development, it can be divided into three generations. The first generation is a structural sensor that uses structural parameter changes to sense and transform signals. The second generation is a solid-state sensor developed in the 1970s. The sensor is composed of solid components such as semiconductor, dielectric, magnetic material, etc., and is made of certain characteristics of the material, such as thermoelectricity, Hall effect, etc., also called analog sensor, which is currently the highest share of the market; the third generation It is an intelligent sensor. The intelligent sensor is a combination of microcomputer technology and detection technology. It enables the sensor to have certain artificial intelligence. It has the characteristics of mechatronics, digital circuit, and sensor miniaturization. It also has self-diagnosis, remote communication, etc. Function, this is also the field that sensor companies continue to deepen.
Zhou Yonghong said The sensor industry in China is in the development stage as a whole. There is no climate. The sensor is initially used as a separate measuring instrument to detect information. With the development and advancement of technology, sensors are gradually becoming modular, miniaturized, intelligent and networked. The pros and cons of sensor technology is an important indicator to measure a country's scientific and technological level and whether it is at the commanding heights of international strategic competition. It is also the core basic technology that developed countries attach great importance to and focus on.
Data Display ,In recent years, China's sensor market demand continues to grow rapidly, with an average annual growth rate of more than 20%. Experts predict that China's sensor market will reach 10 billion US dollars in 2021, and at present China's large number of sensors still rely on imports, which shows that the development of sensor technology It is already imminent.
Zhou Yonghong said At present, China's domestic high-precision, high-reliability sensor research and development and industrialization capabilities lag behind demand, the technical level is much larger than foreign countries, product consistency, reliability level is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than foreign countries, product varieties and The series is about 30-40% of foreign countries, and the industrialization degree of the products is less than 15%. This also leads to the high-reliability and high-reliability sensors relying heavily on imports, which is monopolized by these developed countries.
In this regard, Zhou Yonghong pointed out that compared with foreign famous Omron, GE, Honeywell, Siemens and other well-known sensor companies, China There are three major shortcomings in the development of sensor companies. The first is weak innovation capability, and the key technologies have not yet broken through. The second is that the industrial structure is irrational, the varieties are few, and the series is incomplete. The third is that the enterprises are weak, mostly for small and medium-sized enterprises. Insufficient strength.
In Zhou Yonghong's view, the main reason for this phenomenon is that the development of sensors requires a lot of capital investment and the development cycle is long. In addition, the lack of high-end talents is also a major cause of the difficult climate of China's sensor industry.
Zhou Yonghong suggested starting from four o'clock. First, increase the core technology research and development and investment, pay attention to the protection of independent intellectual property rights; second, strengthen the research of basic materials to solve the special material problems required by sensors; third, solve high-precision manufacturing equipment and break through the difficulties of high-performance sensor manufacturing; We will digest and absorb foreign special high-precision and high-performance sensors to strengthen the introduction of talents.
"Our country has some layout in conventional sensors, but almost 100% of high-precision sensor products are imported from abroad, and technology is also monopolized by foreign countries." Wu Yunqiao, president of Bolishin Science and Technology, said that domestic sensors are mostly concentrated in low and middle-end areas. There is still a lot of room for improvement in terms of stability, accuracy and perception speed.
Speaking about the reasons for the backwardness of sensors in China, Wu Yunqiao said that it was caused by many factors, such as technology, technology and materials. "Sensors involve R&D, design and production." Wu Yunqiao said, "China lacks accumulation in key technology areas such as materials, manufacturing processes and processes, so this is a long-term process."
Like general purpose chips, the manufacturing process of sensor chips is particularly complex. Moreover, the utilization rate of domestic materials is less than 15% among the materials needed in chip production and processing. In the field of high-end manufacturing and advanced packaging, the domestication rate of semiconductor materials is lower, and some products are facing serious patent technology blockade.
Nevertheless, the sensor industry in our country is catching up locally. Driven by policy guidance and market demand, the development of sensor industry in our country shows a good trend.
"Our breakthrough lies in the application of the Internet of Things." Wu Yunqiao said that China's huge application market has brought impetus to sensor development. He said that the popularity of home smart terminals and the domestication of robotic applications have brought new breakthroughs in sensor applications in the subdivision industry.