Recently, the 5G mobile phone appeared in Xiaobian’s circle of friends.
Yes, with the maturity of 5G chips, 5G mobile phones are gradually becoming commercially available. Especially in the second half of the year, mainstream mobile phone manufacturers are expected to release their own 5G commercial mobile phones.
ZXA released the Axon 10 Pro 5G version on May 6.It should be the first officially released 5G commercial mobile phone
These 5G mobile phones are not obvious in appearance compared with the 4G mobile phones that everyone is currently using. the difference.
But if you think it's exactly the same as a 4G phone, just a few 5G networks, it's a big mistake.
In order to support 5G, there has been a huge change in the internals of the phone.
First, let’s take a look at the most mobile phones The important part - the chip.
Since it is a 5G mobile phone, it must have 5G communication capabilities.
The communication capability of the mobile phone is determined by the baseband chip in the main processing chip.
The composition of the main processing chip of the mobile phone (the baseband chip in the yellow frame)
baseband The chip is a bit like the "network card" of the mobile phone. Only when the "network card" supports 5G, the mobile phone can use the 5G network.
There are currently manufacturers who can manufacture<5G baseband chips,Only Qualcomm, Huawei, MediaTek, Samsung, Intel, Ziguang Zhanrui Six.
Developing baseband chips is very difficult and risky. Not long ago, Apple and Qualcomm reached a price reconciliation and abandoned Intel. It is probably because Intel's 5G baseband could not meet Apple's requirements.
The current mainstream 5G chip is Qualcomm's Snapdragon 855 and Huawei's Kirin 980.
Take the Snapdragon 855 as an example. This chip is believed to have been heard by everyone. It uses 7nm process technology and has strong performance, which is 45% higher than the previous generation 845.
As you can see from the running points, the aforementioned ZTE Axon 10 Pro 5G The version is the Snapdragon 855, and the Antu Bunny runs up to 381,136 points, which is very eye-catching.
The baseband chip of the Snapdragon 855 is the SDX50M, which is actually the X50 5G baseband released by Qualcomm.
This baseband can support 5G full-band coverage, including Sub 6G band (under 6GHz band) and millimeter wave band (above 28GHz) . The ultra-high bandwidth and ultra-low latency of the 5G network can be fully utilized.
As a 5G phone, just change the chip Certainly not enough. With the whole body moving, the overall design will have a huge change.
The first thing to do is the antenna.
Before the 5G of Science Popularization, and everyone mentioned: 5G uses the Massive MIMO technology, which is to enhance the multi-antenna technology.
This technology dramatically increases the number of antennas on both sides of the signal to provide higher speed bandwidth.
From 4G to 5G, the number of antennas changes
The antenna on the base station side becomes 64, 64, or even 128, forming an antenna array.
5G base station large-scale antenna array
The number of antennas on the mobile phone side has doubled. The traditional 4G Lte mobile phone has only 3-6 antennas, and 5G mobile phones will have 10 or more. How to be small Mobile phone space to deploy these antennas,It is the number one problem in 5G mobile phone design.
But fortunately, the size of the 5G antenna is not large.
Frequency × wavelength = speed of light (constant value), so, with 2, 3, 4G The communication band continues to rise and the antenna size continues to decrease.
Some manufacturers will choose the slot antenna layout scheme, the space is not increased compared to before, but more than 10 antennas are placed.It is also possible to automatically adjust the structure of the antenna as the scene changes.
The so-called "slot antenna", in simple terms, is to open a gap in the metal casing of the mobile phone to radiate and receive electromagnetic waves.
Now everyone is very sensitive to the radiation of mobile phones, worried that electromagnetic radiation will affect the body. Here, we have to mention a concept - SAR.
What is SAR? SAR is a numerical value, "Specific Absorption Rate". This value is mainly used to measure the impact of electronic products on the human body.
In general, electronic products that are close to the human body within 20 cm require SAR testing. Countries also have clear requirements for SAR values.For example, the US FCC (Federal Communications Commission) requires that the value of SAR for electronic products must be below 1.6.
Mobile phones in the 5G era, of course, also control the impact of their own electromagnetic radiation on users. To this end, intelligent SAR solutions will be widely adopted. In the solution, the mobile phone will flexibly control the transmission and reception power of the antenna to reduce electromagnetic radiation.
Although the antenna does not add space, But the 5G module itself inevitably adds its own size. How to place the increased volume in a small mobile phone space without expanding the fuselage is also a headache.
This is a bit like building blocks. You have to work hard to make a big guy a little guy. What should I do?
On the one hand, of course, to make the device miniaturized, try to use the smallest packaged device.
On the other hand, it is as stereoscopic as possible. The single layer is multi-layered and forms a laminate like a sandwich.
This way, the layout of the phone's circuit can be made smaller and more compact, reducing space consumption.
5G mobile phones will adopt this design idea to reduce their overall size and thickness.
< Img alt="5G mobile phone has any black technology" src="http://file.elecfans.com/web1/M00/92/C8/o4YBAFzlD2uAZFZmAACUo24EmkE161.jpg" style="height: 271px; width: 500px;">
3D duplex stacking icon (VIVO 5G concept machine Apex2019)
Inter-electromagnetic interference between the internal devices of the mobile phone, this problem is very complicated and important.
5G started to develop, However, 2G/3G/4G includes WI-FI, Bluetooth, gps, etc. The mobile phone still needs to continue to support.
5G mobile phones will use self-shielding devices as much as possible to reduce mutual interference.
The device can be self-shielded, but the antenna is not good, no signal is blocked.
How to control the interference between signals under the working of many networks has always been a problem faced by mobile phone engineers, which is to test the electromagnetic compatibility of mobile phone manufacturers. The touchstone of sexual design ability.
The 5G mobile phone R&D team of major companies must pass numerous simulation experiments to find the optimal solution to improve 4G and 5G networks. The signal quality and throughput under coexistence conditions ensure that there is no problem with the RF signal of the 5G mobile phone.
Power and cooling
Review power and cooling issues.
New mobile phones, new chips, while bringing performance growth, will also bring about a substantial increase in power consumption and heat. If the power consumption is not well controlled, it will greatly affect the endurance of the mobile phone, huge The heat generation will also cause the phone to appear stuck.
Let's take a look at the thermal design of the Axon 10 Pro, which is divided into hardware and software.
Hardware direction, the phone uses a very strong liquid-cooled heat-dissipating copper tube with >5W thermal power processing capability to ensure hot/cold end Temperature difference <>
At the same time, Axon10 Pro also uses phase change heat sink + heat shield material Composite materials, shielding ability and heat dissipation are very strong, ensuring heat dissipation.
Software direction, Axon 10 Pro uses AI < u>cpu management mechanism, through the establishment of algorithm model, with the help of artificial intelligence capabilities, to find the perfect balance between performance and power consumption.
In short, Soft and hard, the heat dissipation ideas of other manufacturers should be roughly the same.
Let’s mention the storage speed of your phone.
Many people ask, 5G network speed is so fast, the storage speed of the phone itself can not keep up? Will it become a bottleneck?
Or Axon 10 Pro, for example, it uses F2FS file system, compared with the traditional EXT4 format file system, random read and write rate increase More than 15%, and special processing for 4K small files, the overall storage performance increased by more than 20%.
It uses Sandisk iNAND 8521 Flash chip.The chip uses Sandisk iNAND 8521 and 64-layer 3D NAND stacking technology, which achieves 2x continuous write performance and 10x 4K random write improvement compared to the previous generation. It provides 792MB/s sequential read and 486MB/s sequential Write speed (currently most UFS 2.1 flash drives on mobile phones are between 200-250MB/s).
If you download movies, 486 MB/s flash sequential write speed, corresponding to 3888 Mbit/s network speed, can fully meet 5G current 1000-2000 Mbit/s Network speed requirements.
In summary, there are many 5G mobile phones and traditional 4G LTE mobile phones. different.
These differences are not manifested in appearance.It is based on internal hardware configuration and overall architecture design. It is impossible to make a qualified 5G mobile phone by hardware alone. In other words, the threshold of the 5G mobile phone market is further raised.
Recently, Xiaozaojun still wants to remind everyone that the current 5G mobile phone is still in its infancy, the cost is high, and the price is not affordable for the average consumer.
Moreover, although the domestic 5G network construction is a slap in the face, it is still a small-scale pilot. Without more than one or two years, it is impossible to achieve scale coverage. The 5G official license has not been issued yet.
So, if you have a plan to change your machine recently, it is recommended not to wait for a 5G phone. The appropriate purchase time for 5G mobile phones is at least half a year later.