In the recent "2019 Industrial Internet Summit", Academician He Hezhen published a new article entitled "Industrial Internet ICT" The speech of the Challenge, the following is the full text of the speech.
Dear Miao, President Zhao, General Zhang, leaders, experts, distinguished guests, good morning.
My topic is a new challenge for the Industrial Internet ICT.Let's talk about the digitalization process of the whole industry. We have gone through the mechanicalization, automation, and intelligence, from process electronic to management digitalization, production automation, network operation, and enterprise intelligence. +, digital transformation, to improve efficiency to meet customer needs, while targeting customer experience, including business innovation and corporate culture digital.
The evolution of the Internet has also followed the development of the entire industry, from the Internet, the Internet of Things, the Industrial Internet, the narrow-band Internet of Things, the Internet + is actually the industrial Internet, the consumer Internet and The combination of financial internet has three different characteristics, which are both related and very different.
The improvement of the industrial Internet, first of all, is personalized. Although the consumer Internet is aimed at more than one billion netizens, it is common, and different companies of the industrial Internet are Individuality. The consumer Internet is global and easy to standardize, and the enterprise network does not necessarily need global networking. Therefore, the devices connected to the intranet are diverse and difficult to standardize. The second is that the threshold is high.Consumer Internet terminals are relatively simple, can be used by anyone, are easy to popularize and upgrade, and the industrial Internet involves a variety of production equipment. Industrial Internet has a long business chain, a complex model, and even many companies are unclear about its needs. So not only do you need to provide a product, but you also need to provide a solution. In addition, the industrial Internet has higher requirements in terms of performance, rapid response, reliability, security, and industrial Internet capital demand. From the point of view of talents, it is necessary to understand both the technology and the production process of the enterprise. Often the real economy companies may need third-party information and communication companies to support, but both need and fear, and why? I am afraid that I will be aware of the technical know-how and trade secrets of the company, and then serve the peers and competitors, so there are all kinds of concerns.
The development of the industrial Internet requires new ideas. From the perspective of business models, consumer Internet is often more expensive than burning money, gathering popularity, circle users, and earning traffic. Advertising to membership fees as income, this model is no way to copy to the industrial Internet, so the transformation benefits of the entire enterprise can only be calculated indirectly.
The soul of the Internet is innovation, the same for the industrial Internet and the consumer Internet, but it does not mean that the mode of thinking of the consumer Internet can be fully used on the industrial Internet. The main body of implementation is different. The Industrial Internet needs more leading enterprises in the segmentation field. The main role is the enterprise of the real economy, the whole ecology is different. The consumer Internet relies on mobile phones, relying on IOS and Android operating system, can build an APP STORE platform, open third party APP, and industry The Internet lacks similar platforms and industrial apps, so most companies feel that the industrial Internet is invisible, intangible, loud, and slow. There are many reasons. Many people say that traditional enterprises are not active enough. I think there are some reasons, but I think it is from the technology itself that it is already equipped to fully support the industrial Internet perspective.
I think the technology itself has basic support conditions, but to meet the requirements of the industrial Internet, there is still a lot of optimization and work to do.In particular, we must integrate with industrial technology. We have already applied a lot of new technologies on the consumer Internet, but it is still not enough. Industrial also has industrial IT technology, including sensors, circuits, prosecution and data acquisition, manufacturing systems, programmable logic controllers, industrial The OT technology includes materials, machines, methods, measurements, maintenance, management, and models, both of which need to be combined, otherwise the industrial Internet is still two skins.
Industrial Internet communication protocol, the bottom layer has a monitoring system, with an internal bus in the middle, which can connect various kinds of Database, and when connecting to an external network, when connecting to an external network, many times use the existing Internet IP protocol, but within the enterprise, basically the Internet of Things is an Internet of Things agreement, the intranet It is the protocol of Ethernet, we see that 5G will have a great application on the industrial Internet, 5G and 4G have a very big improvement, 5G has three application scenarios. . Enhance mobile broadband, wide coverage, and large connectionsUltra-reliable, low latency, 5G for consumer Internet, mainly focused on enhancing mobile broadband, and enhancing mobile broadband, including industrial Internet applications. In 2035, normal mobile broadband accounts for about 300 million yuan, of which for chain consumption. 20% of the people, wide coverage, large connections, ultra-reliable, low latency, a large number of industrial Internet, it can be said that by 2035, the industrial Internet will account for 80% of the overall income of 5G, but 5G is suitable for industrial Internet applications The 5G delay is one millisecond, and it can be used in most cases of industrial applications, but in industrial reality communication, the required communication cycle is microsecond, the synchronization progress is nanosecond, the reliability is five 9, or even higher. 5G is not enough to support such low latency and high reliability applications, but these low latency and high reliability mainly refer to the internal network.
So the actual positioning of the 5G industrial Internet is in the internal or external network? I think a lot of it is still in the external network, but it does not rule out some wild production, it will use 5G as an intranet application. The enterprise's intranet, we have gone through the production of vertical lines, Ethernet, industrial Ethernet, and delay sensitive networks,The priority control is added to the Ethernet to ensure the quality of the highly demanded service by sacrificing the quality of service of the general service. Therefore, the intranet will also undergo some changes, from Ethernet to TSN. Do you need other Internet standards besides NBIOT? For large enterprises, it is possible to use (English) NR, based on the operator's public network NBIOT, the rate is not high, 20K and 250K, the corresponding sensor is fixed. Can not support large connections, industrial robots, sensors are mobile, and require large connections and multiple bandwidths, and even need to talk to people, so 5G needs to develop some standards for narrow-band Internet of Things to adapt to the industrial Internet.
Industrial Internet data collection and monitoring, originally had SCADA, now is an industrial control gateway, with multiple protocols, multiple connections The ability, where is the industrial control gateway? The integration of IOT network and enterprise server functions enables data acquisition and monitoring with improved industrial Internet. Industrial Internet and cloud network, our cloud has various levels, and now the industrial Internet emphasizes edge computing,The central cloud is responsible for modeling, training modeling, edge clouds for execution and processing, and fast response.
There is a problem now. Under the private cloud system, it is easy to achieve the synergy between the central cloud and the edge cloud. Large enterprises will build a private cloud. The synergy of the edge cloud is easy to solve. In a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises, there will be a public central cloud and a private edge cloud, which are separated from management. The synergy between the two faces management challenges. What is the platform for the Industrial Internet? We now say that the industrial Internet platform is very important. At the exhibition, every company introduces the platform, but your so-called platform is not necessarily the same as other people's platforms. Usually we all say that CPS, the information physics system, should be needed by the Industrial Internet. But the industrial Internet platform is not the whole CPS. Now, like GE (English), it is basically the PAAS platform. There are industrial big data, modeling, and some soft tools, and some preliminary analysis.
GE's platform is equivalent to PAAS, shielding all kinds of industrial software from the upper layer, as well as various kinds of equipment at the bottom, shielding diversity and gaining versatility. But only PAAS can't implement operating system. The function, is the operating system all placed in PAAS? I don't know. PAAS is difficult to play without the support of big data. There are also industrial APPs on SAAS and SAAS. I think these issues need to be defined in the future. There is some consensus on the industrial Internet platform.
Artificial intelligence will also be widely used on the industrial Internet. We know that artificial intelligence is a neural network. u>Oriented algorithm, but based on big data export, first, is our industry data so massive? Second, based on the data export model, is there any understanding of these rules accumulated by the company all the year round? Now say The accuracy of the basic training model is 99%, but in fact the system still makes a lot of mistakes. If the data model has complex parameters, the data fitting principle will lose its physical and chemical significance. Lack of transparency and explanatory.
Artificial intelligence judges that this patient needs one less leg, why should one less leg, he will not speak, he only knows the relevance, does not know causality. Therefore, the industrial Internet needs to create an environment in which engineers work with artificial intelligence. It is explained by artificial intelligence. My understanding of artificial intelligence is manual plus machine intelligence. Let's take a look at this rotating beauty. Everyone sees that she is clockwise, she is also counterclockwise, the key is whether you think she is moving forward or right foot forward, and this kind of understanding you may find that you have changed in a while, why? Because the machine itself, the so-called machine learning, the neural network is actually a classifier, we find the law of classification, and some of the differences on the edge are easily blurred. Therefore, artificial intelligence does not mean that it is completely in the service center. It still has a lot of work for the application of the whole industry. Often, we are doing well now, and it is a company with relatively complete data.
There is also a credit for the Industrial Internet, and now the blockchain is well applied.The picture below shows that Ali uses the blockchain to trace the source of milk powder sold on Taobao. If it is from New Zealand and Australia, the real source is New Zealand and Australia. The blockchain has four encryption security methods. It can be done through an algorithmic system that does not require the involvement of a third party's integrity. But there is a problem, blockchain uses trust algorithm code instead of trust, the code will be cracked first by hackers, is technology more trustworthy than people? Technology costs more than people. So, that is to say, it is not that the blockchain can solve the problem of Internet credit reporting, but the blockchain can be combined with the Internet of Things and third-party institutions to empower the industrial Internet. Many of our private enterprises and SMEs do not have real estate, so the proportion of real estate is very low, and banks can't give him loans. Some of the borrowing rates of the private sector are high and overwhelmed. For example, in Wuxi, the logistics supply, he wants to purchase, 20% of the daily payment can also get a lot of money to get his hands, he does not have so much money to buy so much equipment. In the past, the bank did not give him a loan. Now I use the Internet of Things to monitor the warehouse. Although the warehouse machine may be transported away, but through short-term monitoring, it is still real estate, the real estate information obtained by the bank,The bank can borrow money from the borrower. Of course, if the monitoring is out of the warehouse, the bank will find that, in fact, before the outbound, the borrower will repay the loan, will decompress, and each block is added with blockchain supervision. So in this way, using the Internet of Things to lower the interest rate to 7.1%, which is 1.5% more than the bank's interest rate, so the blockchain is useful, but it needs to cooperate with the Internet of Things and third-party agencies.
The security of the industrial Internet cannot be solved by the enterprise itself. Some of our companies say that encrypting our core data, as well as decentralized storage, and storing it out of order, even if it is stolen, there is no way to read it. But now hackers can encrypt your encrypted data again, you can't read it yourself, and then the hacker says you want to read it? give me money. Therefore, the entire encryption can not solve enterprise security, and intrusion prevention is the most important.
The industrial Internet security of the enterprise cannot be solved by the enterprise itself. It needs to be related to the system integrator and the government department.There are also three levels of security centers, at the national level, at the provincial level, to exchange such dangerous information, and to use external forces to help enterprises improve the security defense of the industrial Internet. But there is a problem here. Is the company's data not known by others? Therefore, in the development and security of the industrial Internet, we need to develop the sharing and open application of enterprise data as soon as possible, and provide legal protection for business. Industrial Internet is the foundation of industrial digitalization, networking and intelligent development. Industrial Internet is the second half of the Internet. It has different characteristics from the consumer Internet. It needs to meet the high security, ultra-reliable, low latency, large connection and personality of enterprise applications. The need for IT and OT compatibility requires the development of ICT technology optimized for the Industrial Internet. Although there are still many technologies that are not perfect, it does not mean that the Industrial Internet cannot be started now. The full realization of the industrial Internet is a long-term process, but any enterprise can start, start the digital transformation work from any stage, and manage the innovation and technological innovation to meet the challenges of development
Thank you all.